Handling right-to-left (RTL) or bi-directional (BiDi) text is an often requested feature for various terminal emulators. As I’ll show later, I am not satisfied with any existing documentation or implementation I could find in this topic. Therefore I decided to come up with a new proposal (built on top of prior work by others), and implement it in the VTE terminal emulation widget.

I aim to come up with a design that is clean, simple, practical, follows best practices, and is easily implementable by terminal emulators and terminal-based applications.

Some areas I deliberately leave open for the time being. By implementing the basics in a few key emulators and apps, we’ll gather real life experience for the missing bits. Ideally this specification will receive subsequent versions that are (reasonably) backwards compatible with earlier ones.

This specification is still work in progress. Especially during the early days of adoption, it might receive backward incompatible updates. The topic of BiDi in terminals has been unsolved for decades, I’d much rather have occasional breakages during the first few years of adoption than carry a faulty decision and its consequences for decades to come. In the (hopefully unlikely) event of spotting a bug or bad design, the specification will be fixed and implementations will be expected to adjust reasonably quickly.

Conventions in this document

Fake RTL

It’s a standard convention in examples to use lowercase letters for LTR and uppercase English letters for “fake RTL”, since obviously readers of this document and developers of relevant software aren’t expected to read any of these scripts or speak any of these languages. Example:

this is an english sentence ending in SDROW WERBEH EMOS.

ECMA TR/53 uses opposite casing.

Whenever I say “English”, as well as “Arabic” or “Hebrew” (pretty randomly) throughout the document (except when speaking of Arabic shaping), please treat them as “any LTR script” and “any RTL script”.

Applications, utilities

Whenever I say “application” (“app” for short) or “utility”, unless otherwise stated or otherwise obvious from context, I refer to an application or utility running inside the terminal emulator (e.g. bash, cat, mc, vim, emacs, tmux, cowsay… you name it). I tend to use “utility” for simpler ones and “application” for the fullscreen ones (that is, using the entire canvas of the terminal emulator).

Terminal, emulator

I use “terminal”, “emulator” and “terminal emulator” interchangeably for the very same thing. It’s typical loose wording to say “terminal” when it refers to a graphical emulator and not a hardware one.